Xerotica obliterans balanitis
Xerotica obliterans balanitis (lichen sclerosus) - fibrous-sclerotic and atrophic process with weakly pronounced inflammatory component, hitting the head of the penis. Xerotica obliterans balanitis is characterized by the appearance of whitish spots and hyperkeratotic lesions in the head region and the inner layer of the foreskin, skin wrinkling, resulting in possible development of a stenosis of the foreskin, phimosis, narrowing the mouth of the urethra. Recognition sclerosing lichen is based on an examination, biopsy and histological diagnosis establishment. When balanitis obliterans xerotica performed circumcision, meatotomy, if necessary - plastic urethra, appointed local glucocorticoid therapy pfizer vgr 50 viagra.
Xerotica obliterans balanitis (lichen sclerosus) can develop at any age: children, men of middle and old age, but more common in patients older than 50 years. Clinical Urology considers obliterans balanitis xerotica as a condition predisposing to the development of penile cancer.
On histologic features similar balanitis obliterans xerotica sclerotic lichen and some local forms of scleroderma. In gynecology limited scleroderma can be identified in the field of external genitalia in women when there is no data for kraurosis vulva. These observations allow us to combine the skin and urogenital sclerosing processes in one group having dystrophic nature.
The etiology of sclerosing lichen unclear. It is believed that the development of obliterative xerotica balanitis can cause a wide range of factors - genetic, autoimmune, infectious, mechanical, hormonal.
In dermatology, gynecology and andrology are observations of familial cases of sclerotic lichen and lichen sclerosing genitals. Ongoing research in this field revealed a number of genes responsible for the development of inherited xerotica obliterans balanitis and its degree.
The data of scientific studies suggest a link between xerotica obliterans balanitis and autoimmune lesions - vitiligo, psoriasis, polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, myxedema, primary biliary cirrhosis, alopecia and OE addition, local manifestations xerotica obliterans balanitis are similar to characteristic changes in tissue in autoimmune diseases.
Not excluded the role of viral agents in the development of obliterative xerotica balanitis: in particular, in the tissues of the foreskin after the circumcision, pathogens often found genital herpes and human papillomavirus infection.
In some cases can be traced the dependence occurrence xerotica obliterans balanitis from the local skin lesions - mechanical, chemical or thermal trauma, abrasions, chronic irritation of the urine, radiation exposure during radiotherapy. Several researchers have noted the connection sclerotic-fibrotic changes in the head of the penis with the previous surgical circumcision for phimosis.
It is expected that the development of obliterative xerotica balanitis may be associated with age-related drop in testosterone levels or impaired tissue sensitivity to male sex hormones.