Spastic syndrome in children
Spastic syndrome in children - a nonspecific response of the child's organism to external and internal stimuli, is characterized by sudden attacks of involuntary muscle contractions. Spastic syndrome in children occurs with the development of partial seizures or generalized tonic clonic and nature with loss or without loss of consciousness levetiracetam 500 mg price. In order to establish the causes of seizures in children should be consulted a pediatrician, neurologist, traumatologist; conducting EEG, NSG, REG, skull X-ray, CT of the brain, and so forth. Relief of seizures in children requires the introduction of anticonvulsants and treatment of the underlying disease.
Spastic syndrome in children - frequent urgent conditions of childhood, occurring with the development of convulsive paroxysms. Spastic syndrome occurs with a frequency of 17-20 cases per 1,000 children: while 2/3 of seizures in children occur during the first 3 years of life. Children of preschool age convulsions occur 5 times more often than in the general population. The high prevalence of seizures in childhood is due to the immaturity of the nervous system of children, prone to the development of brain reactions and the diversity of the reasons causing the seizures. Spastic syndrome in children can not be considered as a primary diagnosis, since accompanies over a large range of diseases in pediatrics, pediatric neurology, traumatology, endocrinology.
Spastic syndrome in children is polyetiological clinical syndrome. Neonatal seizures, developing in newborns, usually associated with severe hypoxic lesion of the central nervous system (fetal hypoxia, asphyxia newborns), intracranial birth trauma, intrauterine or postnatal infection (cytomegaly, toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes, congenital syphilis, listeriosis, and others.), Congenital anomalies brain development (goloprozentsefaliey, hydranencephaly, Lissencephaly, hydrocephalus, etc.), fetal alcohol syndrome. Seizures may be a manifestation of withdrawal syndrome in children born to mothers suffering from drug and alcohol addiction. Rarely occur in newborn tetanus spasms caused by infection of the umbilical wound.
Among the metabolic disorders that cause seizures, highlight an electrolyte imbalance (hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypo- and hypernatremia) occurring in preterm children with intrauterine malnutrition, galactosemia, phenylketonuria. Separately, in a series of toxic-metabolic disorders is associated with hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus her newborn. Spastic syndrome can develop in children with endocrine disorders - diabetes mellitus hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism at spazmofilii.
In infancy and early childhood in the genesis of seizures in children leading role played by neural infections (encephalitis, meningitis), infectious diseases (SARS, influenza, pneumonia, otitis media, sepsis), traumatic brain injury, post-vaccination complications, epilepsy.
Less common causes of seizures in children are the brain tumor, brain abscess, congenital heart disease, poisoning and intoxication, hereditary degenerative CNS diseases, phakomatoses.
A certain role in the occurrence of seizures in children belong to a genetic predisposition, namely - the inheritance of characteristics and metabolism neurodynamics defining lowered seizure threshold. Provoke seizures a child may infection, dehydration, stress, sudden excitement, overheating, etc.
By origin distinguish epileptic and non-epileptic (symptomatic, secondary) convulsions in children. Among symptomatic include febrile (infectious), hypoxic, metabolic, structural (with organic lesions of the central nervous system) seizures. It should be noted that in some cases non-epileptic seizures may go into epileptic (eg, long-term, more than 30 minutes of intractable seizures, repeated seizures).
Depending on the clinical manifestations distinguish partial (localized, focal) seizures, covering certain groups of muscles, and generalized seizures (a common seizure). Given the nature of muscle contraction spasms may be tonic and clonic: in the first case, episodes of contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscles quickly follow each other; Second there is a long spasm without relaxation periods. In most cases, convulsions in children occurs with generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Febrile seizures usually stop with age. In order to prevent its recurrence should not be allowed in the event of severe hyperthermia from an infectious disease of the child. The risk of transformation of febrile seizures in epileptic is 2-10%.
In other cases, prevention of seizures in children includes preventing perinatal pathology, treatment of the underlying disease, the observation from childhood professionals. If a convulsive syndrome in children does not disappear after cessation of the underlying disease, it can be assumed that the child developed epilepsy.