Neurosis - functional disorders of higher nervous activity of psychogenic origin. Clinic neuroses are highly variable and may include somatic neurotic disorders, autonomic disorders, phobias, dysthymia, obsessions, compulsions, emotional-mental problems what does alprazolam look like. To establish the diagnosis "neurosis" is possible only after the elimination of similar to him in hospital psychiatric, neurological and somatic diseases. Treatment has two main components: psychotherapy (psycho-correction, training, art therapy) and medication (antidepressants, tranquilizers, antipsychotics, fortifying agents).
Neurosis as the term was coined in 1776 by Scottish doctor Purchased names. This was done, as opposed to earlier statements made George. Morgagni that the base of each disease is the morphological substrate. the term "neurosis" author meant by it functional impairments who do not have under an organic lesion of any organ.
The term "neurotic disorder" used in ICD-10 instead of the term "neurosis". However, today the term "neurosis" is widely used in relation to psychogenic disorders of higher nervous activity, ie. E. Due to the influence of chronic or acute stress. If the same violations are related to the influence of other etiological factors (eg, toxic exposure, injury, an illness), they belong to the so-called neurosis-like syndromes.
In today's world of neurosis is a fairly common disorder. In developed countries, various forms of neurotic disorders affect 10% to 20% of the population, in Vol. H. And children. In the structure of mental disorders neuroses accounts for about 20-25%. Since the symptoms of neurosis are often not only psychological, but also systemic in nature, this perspective is relevant for clinical psychology and neuroscience, as well as a number of other disciplines: cardiology, gastroenterology, pulmonology, pediatrics.
Although multiple studies in this area, the true reason for the pathogenesis of neurosis and its development are not known for certain. For a long time considered informational neurosis disease associated with intelligent congestion and greater pace of life. In this regard, the lower the frequency of neurotic illness among residents of rural areas was due to more relaxed way of life. However, studies conducted among air traffic controllers, have refuted these assumptions. It turned out that, despite the hard work that requires constant attention, rapid analysis and response, dispatchers suffer neuroses no more people of other professions. Among the causes of their illness were specified predominantly family problems and conflicts with his superiors, and not fatigue during operation.
Other studies, as well as the results of psychological testing of patients with neuroses, have shown that the crucial lack quantitative parameters traumatic factors (multiplicity, force), and its subjective importance for a particular individual. Thus, the external trigger situations that trigger a neurosis, is very individual and depends on the patient's system of values. Under certain conditions, any, even the worldly, the situation can be the basis of development of neurosis. At the same time, many experts have concluded that the matter is not very stressful situation, namely the wrong attitude to it as to the destructive private safe now or threatening personal future.
A certain role in the development of neurosis belongs to psycho-physiological characteristics of man. It is noted that this disorder often people fall ill with increased suspiciousness, pointedly, emotionality, rigidity, subdepressive. Perhaps the most emotional lability women is one of the factors leading to the fact that the development of neurosis they observed in 2 times more often than men. Hereditary predisposition to neurosis is realized through inheritance of certain personal characteristics. In addition, the increased risk of neurosis there in times of hormonal changes (puberty, menopause) and in patients who had a child neurotic reactions (enuresis, logoneurosis et al.).
Modern understanding of the pathogenesis of neurosis assigns a major role in its development of functional disorders of limbic-reticular complex, primarily hypothalamic department of an intermediate brain. These brain structures are responsible for ensuring that internal communications and interaction between the autonomic, emotional, endocrine and visceral areas. Under the influence of acute or chronic stress is a violation of the integrative processes in the brain with the development of maladjustment. However, no morphological changes in the brain tissue were observed. Since the disintegration processes involve visceral sphere and the autonomic nervous system, in the clinic of neurosis along with psychiatric manifestations observed somatic symptoms and signs of vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Disorders of limbic-reticular complex with nervousness combined with neurotransmitter dysfunction. Thus, the study of the mechanism of anxiety, inadequacy revealed brain noradrenergic systems. There is speculation that pathological anxiety is associated with an abnormality of benzodiazepine and GABA receptors or decrease in the amount of neurotransmitters affecting them. The effectiveness of treatment of anxiety benzodiazepine tranquilizers is a confirmation of this hypothesis. The positive effect of antidepressants that affect the functioning of the serotonin system of the brain, indicate a pathogenetic link neurosis with serotonin metabolism disorders in the cerebral structures.